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Abstract requirements

Abstract is a short independent written statement containing only the most important ideas of a paper. We recommend mentioning the following aspects (in order):

1)   The rationale. The abstract should formulate a scientific problem which does not have a theoretical or practical solution as yet or is characterized by a discrepancy between theoretical propositions and reality, etc.;

2)   A specified scientific task to solve the problem. This part of the abstract should preferably start with “The article deals with/aims to/explores…”;

3)   Methodological basis. The authors describe the conceptual and theoretical framework of the study (economic or related theories which the research paper is based upon);

4)   Research materials and methods applied during the study. This part should provide a detailed description of the tools used to tackle the scientific problem, as well as the empirical results of implementing the proposed set of methods;

5)   The main findings and their implications. This part outlines the author’s contribution to resolving the problem under study;

6)   Conclusions that give answers to the questions indicated in item (1) and clarify further avenues for research.


While writing an abstract the authors should:

– not reproduce the text of the paper as well as its title word for word;

– not include figures, tables, inline notes, abbreviations, authorial contractions as well as information that is not discussed in the article into an abstract;

– present the findings of the work with maximum accuracy; list main theoretical and experimental results, facts, revealed interrelations and regularities;

– use syntactic structures typical of scientific and technical documents; avoid complicated grammatical structures, introductory words and general words.


Recommended volume of an abstract is 150–200 words in Russian and English.


Example 1

The paper looks at the problems of strategic planning and management in the Russian Federation. One of these problems is the lack of uniform methodological approaches to preparing documents on strategic planning of territories and to establishing the fields of their strategic development, in particular. The methodological basis of the study includes the theoretical concepts of strategic management, regional and spatial economics. The stages of the strategic planning evolution in Russia and peculiarities in the development (updating) of strategic planning documents of territories are revealed through a combination of methods: dialectic, cause-effect, ranking values of statistical indicators, etc. The authors discuss strategic challenges and objectives for the development of the Russian Federation and emphasize that the mechanisms of strategic planning and strategic management of territorial development need to be applied. The article provides a brief overview of modern studies on new industrial cities, analyses the priorities enshrined in the main strategic planning documents of megacities of the Russian Federation as typical new industrial cities and estimates the competitiveness of Russian million-plus cities. The authors give recommendations on determining the priorities of the socio-economic development strategy, and specifically in the context of new industrialization. We also propose a composition of priority directions of the strategy, their components, as well as a list of indicators of socio-economic development. The theoretical and practical significance of the study lies in the necessity to provide the optimal set of the strategic development priorities, guarantee their effective implementation and organize the strategic control system of territories at various hierarchical levels.


Example 2

The most important reasons for choosing a business format are access to resources (including technologies) and a response to market signals. If a company already exists, its possibilities for change depend on various stimulating and restrictive factors. The article discusses the features of the transformation of traditional industrial enterprises business models. The methodological basis of the study is the concept of business models. We also use a problem-oriented approach that allows for the specifics of industrial enterprises. Based on the systematization of structural elements, we distinguish between four types of business models: traditional, technological, service and digital. There are two possible strategies for changing the traditional industrial enterprise: technological and service business models. Traditional industrial enterprises should move from scale effect maximization and material assets optimization to network effects and the development of technological systems. We examine the case of the Siemens AG that describes the transition from the traditional business model to the technological and service business model. We suggest looking at the motivational mechanisms for changing the business model of traditional industrial enterprises through the prism of the increasing returns phenomenon and characterize the types of business models by different ways of achieving increasing returns. Our research also proves that the main peculiarity of the transition speed is the uniformity of technological standards, which can be achieved through the use of a platform business model and the creation of a digital shadow. The research results can be a basis for studying the costs and benefits from a traditional industrial enterprise’s transformation, as well as from the development of new industrial policy mechanisms.


Example 3

Efficient functioning of industrial markets is largely determined by institutional environment. There are numerous problems related to changing its quality, measuring it, finding adequate indicators for assessing the research subject and some others. The study evaluates the complexity of industrial markets’ institutional organization considering the case of seven industries of the Russian metallurgical sector. The author specifies the system of institutional interaction in industrial markets. The methodological framework of the research includes the ideology of new institutionalism and the theory of industrial organization. The research uses the method of institutional mapping, which is designing a system containing two projections: a level of institutions’ complexity of an industrial market and a level of institutional environment complexity of an industrial market. The results of the research are empirical institutional maps for seven industries of the metallurgical sector online and with adjustment for sustainability. Institutional map visualizes rather a high level of complexity in all considered industries, however, this fact is due to different reasons. The study may be of interest both to enterprises for correcting their strategies and public authorities for implementing industrial policy.


Example 4

The research of municipal districts as a type of rural municipalities in Russia is predominantly focused on studying asymmetry, unevenness of socioeconomic development, analysis of region’s spatial organization; however, scholarly works do not assess municipal districts’ economic development with reference to transformations of regional economic space. The study aims to design a method for identifying trends in municipal districts’ economic development in the space of Russian regions. Methodologically the paper relies on the theoretical propositions of both spatial and rural economics. The authors systematise Russian scholars’ approaches to the analysis of the municipalities’ socioeconomic development and based on this suggest their method for identifying constructive and destructive trends in economic development of municipal districts. At this, the authors consider a trend constructive if it contributes to the development of economic space of a region, and destructive if it leads to its destruction. The method encompasses four stages: assessment of scales of municipal districts’ presence in economic space of a region, assessment of municipal districts’ own economic dynamics, generalisation of these assessments and final identification of type of trends with the ultimate conclusions about municipal districts’ impact on the economic space of a region. The authors test the method using the case of Sverdlovsk oblast. According to the research findings, four out of five municipal districts in the oblast develop constructively. The only municipal district that has a destructive effect on economic space of the region is Slobodo-Turinsky municipal district. Theoretical and practical significance of the work is that the designed method allows not just assessing the economic dynamics of municipal districts but also linking it to the regional spatial economic development.